A Quorum refers to the number of people who are required to be attending a meeting prior to any business can be conducted.
1)The minimal number of officers and members of a committee or organization, usually a majority, who must be present for valid transaction of business.
2)A select group.
Duhaime Legal Dictionary
The minimum number of voting members that must be in attendance at a meeting of an organization for that meeting to be regularly constituted.
A meeting cannot start or transact business until there is a minimum number of voting members, a quorum. Without a quorum, the meeting is never properly constituted; it cannot transact business validly.
Any business transacted where a quorum is not present is null and void except for one item and that is a motion to adjourn.
The quorum requirements for organizations varies greatly and is usually set proportionate to the average number of members. Organizations want to avoid having business transacted in the absence of a minimum numbers of members but at the same time, do not want to prevent or delay work by setting too high a quorum.
Almost all organizations and government bodies specify the quorum of their organizations within the statute that creates the body.
Middle English, a select number of English justices of the peace formerly required to be present at sessions to constitute a lawful bench, from Latin, of whom, genitive plural of qui who; from the wording of the commission once issued to justices of the peace in England.
n. the number of people required to be present before a meeting can conduct business. Unless stated differently in bylaws, articles, regulations or other rules established by the organization, a quorum is usually a majority of members. A quorum for meetings of corporate boards of directors, homeowners' associations, clubs and shareholders meetings are usually set in the bylaws. The quorum for meetings of governmental bodies such as commissions and boards are usually set by statute.
Lect Law Library
QUORUM - The minimum number of directors who must be present at a directors meeting, or shares of stock that must be represented by stockholders at a stockholders meeting in order to conduct business or take action.
Used substantively, quorum signifies the number of persons belonging to a legislative assembly, a corporation, society, or other body, required to transact business; there is a difference between an act done by a definite number of persons, and one performed by an indefinite number: in the first case a majority is required to constitute a quorum, unless the law expressly directs that another number may make one; in the latter case any number who may be present may act, the majority of those present having, as in other cases, the right to act.
Sometimes the law requires a greater number than a bare majority to form a quorum, in such case no quorum is present until such a number convene.
When an authority is confided to several persons for a private purpose, all must join in the act, unless otherwise authorized.
The Free (Legal) Dictionary
A quorum is the minimum number of people who must be present to pass a law, make a judgment, or conduct business. Quorum requirements typically are found in a court, legislative assembly, or corporation (where those attending might be directors or stockholders). In some cases, the law requires more people than a simple majority to form a quorum. If no such defining number is determined, a quorum is a simple majority.
A quorum also might mean the number of members of a body defined as competent to transact business in the absence of the other members. The purpose of a quorum rule is to give decisions made by a quorum enough authority to allow binding action to be conducted.
In law, a quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative body necessary to conduct the business of that group. Ordinarily, this is a majority of the people expected to be there, although bodies may have a lower or higher quorum.